Wednesday, 29 July 2015

29th July 1815: Simon Orgill's compensation case comes before Leciester Assizes

On Saturday 29th July 1815, Leicester Assizes heard the case of Simon Orgill, a manufacturer from Castle Donington, whose Mill had been attacked by Luddites the previous year. He had brought a compensation claim against the relevant local authority. The Nottingham Review of 4th August 1815 carried a report of the case:

LEICESTER ASSIZES, July 29.

Orgill v. Smith and Draper.

At these Assizes came on the trial of an action brought to recover a compensation in damages, to the amount of £512, by the Plaintiff, Mr Simon Orgill, resident at Castle Donington, in the County of Leicester, from the Defendants, Smith and Draper, as two of the inhabitants of the hundred of Westgoscote, in that county, for the injury done to the lace machines of the Plaintiff, by a number of persons called Luddites, on the night of Easter Sunday, 1814.

Mr. J Balguy opened the pleadings.

Mr. Serjeant Vaughan, leading Counsel for the Plaintiff, in an energetic and energetic speech to the Jury, went through the whole of the facts, and in very strong terms reprobated the frame-breaking system which had so long disgraced the town and neighbourhood of Nottingham. The learned Counsel then called evidence to prove, as in the first instance, the observance of the formal requisites of the statues, then the particulars of the demolition of the Plaintiff’s property, and afterwards the amount of the damages; these were established to the satisfaction of the Learned Judge, leaving some very respectable witnesses un-examined, and the case, on the part of the Plaintiff, closed.

Mr. Clarke, in addressing the Jury on the part of the Defendants, wished to impress upon their minds that the machinery in question did not come within the meaning of the Act; and he also called evidence in mitigation of damages. The first witness called on part of the defence was Thomas Wagstaff, whose evidence was confined to the value of the frames; the next was Benjamin Clarke, a resident of Nottingham, but who had formerly been in the employ of Mr. Orgill for eleven years; when cross-examined by Mr. Serjeant Copley, he was obliged to disclose the cause of his leaving the Plaintiff’s service, his having been apprehended on suspicion of breaking the machines, &c. and he evinced great reluctance to answer such questions as were put to him, but the Court directed them to be answered, as being relative to the cause in question. The next evidence called on the part of the Defendants, was William Tunnicliff, a resident of Castle Donington, and also formerly in the employ of Mr. Orgill. This witness was called to state his opinion of the amount of the damage done to the machines. He underwent a severe cross-examination by the Plaintiff’s Counsel, as to the cause of his leaving Mr. Orgill’s service, his signing a paper addressed to Mr. Orgill, demanding an advance of wages, &c. and his further cross-examination was prevented by his suddenly fainting away. This closed the case on the part of the Defendants.

Serjeant Vaughan then, in a speech fraught with his usual eloquence, addressed the Jury on the part of the Plaintiff, and animadverted most keenly on the nature of the evidence produced on the part of the Defendants. He took occasion to observe, that had his Learned friend, Mr. Clarke, chosen to have posted up a notice on the nearest toll bar to the town of Nottingham, he might have been supplied with shoals of evidence equal to such as had been called in on the part of the Defendants.

His Lordship, in summing up the evidence, expressed the Jury, in very strong terms, his decided opinion that the case on the part of the Plaintiff had been fully established in point of law, and that the Plaintiff had a clear right to recover from the hundred the amount of his damages.

The Jury retired a few minutes, and returned a verdict for the Plaintiff—Damages 400l.

However, the case did not conclude here: the judgment was appealed by the local authority, and would re-appear at the Court of Kings Bench later in the year.

Wednesday, 22 July 2015

22nd July 1815: The trial of Charles Sutton, proprietor of the Nottingham Review, for political libel

On Saturday 22nd July 1815, the proprietor of the Nottingham Review, Charles Sutton, stood trial at Nottingham Summer Assizes for political libel. This account of the trial is from Sutton's newspaper of the following Friday, 28th July 1815.

THE KING V. SUTTON.

On Saturday morning, the Crown Court, in the County Hall, was crowded to excess, as soon as permission could be obtained, by persons of all ranks and ages, eager to hear this long pending and extraordinary trial, which had been removed from the Town to the County by the prosecutors, or instigators, of this indictment, probably with a view of administering justice more securely to Mr.. Sutton, as it might have been difficult to have found twelve such good, honest, unbiassed, and straightforward gentleman in the Town as were selected in the County, the names of whom we shall give at the close.

At nine o'clock, Baron Graham took his seat; and, after the Jury were sworn,

Mr. John Balguy opened his pleadings, by stating that this indictment was instituted by the Attorney-General against the defendant for an article which appeared in the Nottingham Review, dated the 14th of October, 1814, signed "General Ludd," and which contained libellous reflections on the conduct of his Majesty's army engaged in taking the City of Washington, in America, and also indictments to the re-commencement of those riotous proceedings which disgraced this neighbourhood a short time previous to such publication; which libel had a manifest tendency to injure the King, and this peaceable, well disposed, and loving subjects. The indictment was then read over, and contained the substance of the information filed by the Attorney-General, of which we give a copy.

"OF MICHAELMAS TERM, 55TH GEO. 3D.

"Town and County of the}
Town of Nottingham.}         TO WIT.

Be it remembered that Sir William Garrow, Knight, Attorney-General of our Sovereign Lord the King, who prosecutes for our said Lord the King, in this behalf cometh here into the Court of our said Lord the King, before the King himself, at Westminster, on Monday next after the morrow of all souls in this same term, and four are said Lord the King giveth the Court here to understand and be informed, that at divers and very many times before the publication of the scandalous, malicious, and seditious libel hereinafter mentioned, to wit, in the years of our Lord 1811 and 1812, divers and very many acts of outrage had been committed by divers disorderly and ill-disposed persons, in and in the neighbourhood of Nottingham, against the property of divers of his Majesty’s liege and peaceable subjects, to and particularly against the Framework-knitted Stocking and Framework Lace Manufactory, whereby the property of many of his Majesty’s subjects had in several instances been wholly destroyed: And whereas divers of the persons engaged, and suspected to be engaged, in the perpetration of such outrages, had been reputed to act under the direction of some supposed and unknown person called General Ludd, and had been generally been called Luddites, (to wit,) at the parish of Saint Peter, in the town and county of the town of Nottingham; and that before and at the time of the publication of the scandalous, malicious, and seditious libels hereinafter-mentioned, an open and public war was prosecuted and carried on between our said Lord the King and his subjects, and the United States of America and the citizens of same States, enemies of our said Lord the King and his subjects, (to wit,) at the parish aforesaid, in the town and county of the town of Nottingham aforesaid; nevertheless—

"CHARLES SUTTON, late of the parish aforesaid, in town and county of the town aforesaid, Printer, well knowing the premises, but being a malicious and ill-disposed person, and unlawfully and maliciously devising and intending to excite discontent and disaffection in the minds of the liege subjects of our said Lord the King, against our said Lord the King and his Government, and to bring the Government of our said Lord the King into public hatred and contempt, and to excite divers persons to break and disturb the peace of our said Lord the King, and to commit acts of violence and outrage heretofore, (to wit,) of the 14th day of October, in the 54th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the 3rd, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, at the parish aforesaid, in town and county of the town aforesaid, unlawfully, maliciously, and seditiously did print and publish, and did cause and procure to be printed and published, a certain scandalous, malicious, and seditious libel, of and concerning the acts of outrage aforesaid, and the persons concerned in the perpetration thereof, and of and concerning his said Majesty’s Government, and the employment of his troops, to the tenor and effect following, (that is to say)—

"GENERAL LUDD.
(Meaning the said supposed and unknown person called General Ludd.)

"TO THE EDITOR OF THE NOTTINGHAM REVIEW

"SIR—I take the liberty of dropping you a few lines to inform you of the good fortune of one of my sons, (meaning of one of the said person called Luddites) who is come to very high honor. You must know that some time ago, owing to a little imprudent conduct, my eldest son, NED, decamped, and enlisted into his Majesty’s service, (meaning the military service of our said Lord the King,) and as he was notorious for heroism and honorable enterprize, he was entrusted with a commission to exercise his prowess against the Americans, and I am happy to say he has acquitted himself in a way which will establish his fame to generations yet unborn.

"I assure you, Mr. Editor, I scarcely know how to keep my feelings within bounds, for while all our former and united efforts in breaking frames, &c. (meaning such acts of outrage as aforesaid) were commented upon with some severity, and in a way which cast an odium upon my character and that of my family, I now find the scales are turned, and our enemies are converted into friends; they sing a new tune to an old song, and the mighty deeds of my son are trumpeted forth in every loyal paper in the kingdom. My son is not now confined to the breaking of a few frames, having the sanction of government, (meaning the government of our said Lord the King) he can now not only wield his great hammer to break printing presses and types, but he has a licence to set fire to places and property which he deems obnoxious, and now and then even a little private pillage is winked at. Even the GAZETTE EDITOR at Mr. Tupman's who was formerly one of my greatest enemies, and threatened to pursue both me and my family to the uttermost, is now in my favor, and is to become a patron, and an admirer of my son, on account of his achievements in Washington. There is one thing though in the conduct of this Gentleman which has created me some little uneasiness; a few weeks ago he strongly recommended to the magistrates to offer a very large reward, to any person who would disclose our secret system of operation in this neighbourhood: he went so far as to say 5000l. (meaning five thousand pounds) ought to be offered; enough he said to enable the informer to live independent in another country, intimating such a character would not be considered as a proper person for the society of this country, and therefore he would emigrate to seek other associates. I hope it is not true that this notorious Editor has any secrets to disclose about me and my family, and that he is waiting for this large reward to be offered, that he may avail himself of such an opportunity of making his fortune, and fleeing his country. Now, I really think, as my son is become truly loyal, and is working for his country's good, and all under the sanction of the Crown, and as his achievements have been of the first rate, ‘old grievances ought not to be repeated;’ though, bye the bye, I am of opinion that all which I and my son have done in Nottingham and neighbourhood, (meaning the said acts of outrage) is not half so bad as what my son has done in America; but then you know he has supreme orders, from indisputable authority, (meaning the authority of our said Lord the King,) for his operations in America, and that makes all the difference.

"I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
"GENERAL LUDD"

"Ludd Hall, October 5, 1814.

"In contempt of our said Lord the King and his laws, to the evil example of all others, and against the peace of our said Lord the King his crown and dignity.

The second count of the Information, charges the said CHARLES SUTTON, that "he did print and publish and cause to be printed and published a certain other scandalous malicious libel, &c.of and concerning his said Majesty’s government, and the employment of his troops.

The third count.— "That the said CHARLES SUTTON did print and publish, and cause and procure to be printed and published, a certain other scandalous malicious and seditious libel, concerning his said Majesty’s government, and the employment of his troops.

The fourth count— "That the said CHARLES SUTTON did print and publish, and cause and procure to be printed and published, a certain other scandalous, malicious and inflammatory libel containing therein, (among other things,) divers scandalous, malicious, and inflammatory matters, of and concerning acts of outrage aforesaid, and the persons concerned in the perpetration thereof.

The fifth count.—"That the said CHARLES SUTTON did print and publish, and cause to procure to be printed and published, a certain other scandalous, malicious, and inflammatory libel, containing therein, (among other things,) divers scandalous, malicious, and inflammatory matters, of and concerning the acts of outrage aforesaid, and the persons concerned the perpetration thereof.

The sixth count.—"And the said Attorney-General of our said Lord the King, for our said Lord the King giveth the Court here further to understand and be informed, that on divers and very many times before the publication of the scandalous, malicious, and seditious libel hereinafter next mentioned, (to wit,) in the said years of our Lord 1811 and 1812, divers and very many acts of outrage had been committed by divers disorderly and ill-disposed persons, in and in the neighbourhood of Nottingham, against the property of divers of his Majesty’s liege and peaceable subjects and particularly against the framework-knitted stocking and framework lace manufactories, whereby the property of his Majesty’s subjects had in several instances been wholly destroyed, (to wit,) at the parish aforesaid, in the town and county of the town of Nottingham aforesaid, and that before and at the time of the publication of the scandalous, malicious, and seditious libel hereinafter next mentioned, an open and public war was prosecuted and carried on between our said Lord the King in his subjects, and the United States of America and the citizens of the same states, enemies of our said Lord the King and his subjects, (to wit,) at the parish aforesaid, in the town and county and the town of Nottingham aforesaid; nevertheless, the said CHARLES SUTTON, well knowing the premises last aforesaid, but being such malicious and ill-disposed person, and unlawfully and maliciously devising and intending to excite disaffection and discontent in the minds of the liege subjects of our said Lord the King, against our said Lord the King in his Government, and to bring the Government of our said Lord the King into public hatred and contempt afterwards, (to wit,) of the said 14th day of October, in the 54th year of the reign aforesaid, and the parish aforesaid, in the town and county of the town of Nottingham aforesaid, unlawfully, maliciously, and seditiously did print and publish, and cause to be printed and published, a certain other scandalous, malicious, and seditious libel, containing therein, among other things, divers scandalous, malicious, and seditious matters, of and concerning the last mentioned acts of outrage and the persons concerned in the perpetration thereof, and of and concerning his said Majesty’s Government, and the employment of his troops.

The seventh count—"That the said CHARLES SUTTON, on 14th of October, in the said 54th year, at the parish aforesaid, in the town and county of the town of Nottingham aforesaid, did print and publish, and did cause and procure to be printed and published, certain other scandalous, malicious, and inflammatory libel, containing in therein among other things, divers scandalous, malicious, and inflammatory matters, of and concerning the last mentioned acts of outrage, and the persons concerned in the perpetration thereof.

"Whereupon the said Attorney-General of our said Lord the King, who for our said Lord the King in this behalf, prosecuteth for our said Lord the King, prayeth the consideration of the court here in the premises, and that due process of law may be awarded against him the said CHARLES SUTTON, in this behalf, to make him answer to our said Lord the King, touching and concerning the premises aforesaid."

Mr. Clarke then addressed the court and the jury in the following effect:—Gentleman, the libel to which my learned friend has just called your attention, is one of a most mischievous tendency, and very properly calculated to slander the brave army which was so honorably engaged against aggressive and a bitter foe; and also to produce the other consequences alluded to by my learned friend. But it is necessary to state to you, gentlemen of the jury, a few circumstances which happened previous to the publication of this libel, though such circumstances cannot but be well known to you already, from their notoriety and the locality of your situation, and the necessary and honorable duty which devolved upon many of you on those occasions. Then, gentlemen, it was notorious that great disturbances took place in this and the neighbouring counties during the years 1811 and 1812—that lawless associations were formed for the purpose of destroying frames, and doing other mischief to the property of many of his Majesty’s peaceably disposed subjects—that such associations became too formidable that the civil power to resist—that the depraved and wicked members of these associations under the name of Luddites, assailed dwelling-houses in the night—did the mischief which they intended to do, and then retired in attitudes of hostile defiance—and that, on some occasions, assassination had been the consequence.

Mr. Clarke then stated, that, at the time of the publication of this libel, a person was in prison on suspicion of frame-breaking—that a plan was agreed upon for murdering the evidence against the prisoner—that the attack was made, and an innocent man was murdered—that the publication of the libel gave general disgust—and that its tendency was to raise resistance to the laws, and to dishonor the army by comparing British soldiers with persons who had committed such outrages. I shall hope to hear, if possible, from my Learned Friend, who appears for the defendant, what other end it could possibly answer. It is, said he, a gross libel on the government. When friends were broken, the cry of the depredators was "Ned, do your duty"—was not this a proof that the supposed Ned Ludd was a framebreaker? and that the author of this libel, in signing himself "General Ludd" intended to excite frame-breaking? Mr. Clarke now read the article, charged as a libel, by piecemeal, and commented upon it as he proceeded, commencing with that part which relates to the devastation committed in America. News arrived, said he, of the capture of Washington, and out comes this libel to disgrace the army. The Editor of the Nottingham Review states that brave army to be commanded by "General Ludd," who is made to say, that though his men had previously been guilty of a little imprudent conduct in the breaking of frames, they had now the sanction of government, and can not only wield their greatest hammers to break printing-presses and types, but they have a licence to set fire to places and property; and now and then even a little private pillage is winked at—And so, continued the Counsel, frame-breaking is to be designated as a "little imprudent conduct," which is heightened into "honorable enterprise" when Ned is supposed to have the "the sanction of government" to commit outrages in America! Is it to be endured that the army, fighting honorably against an enemy that unprovokedly went to war with us in hopes of aiding a tyrant of France to blot us out from the rank of nations? an enemy that had no cause of complaint, except her own trumpeted up and imaginary grievances—is it to be endured, that our brave army, fighting against such an enemy, shall thus be libelled by comparison with the Luddites? Nay, this is a libel upon our ministers too, for it says that the acts committed in America, which are represented as so much more extensively mischievous than those committed here by the Luddites, were sanctioned by government, and that a little private pillage was winked at—nay more, this is a libel upon the King; for he is supposed to have given the orders! This is not to be borne, gentlemen, this is not to be borne! Is our good King to be libelled too by comparison with the Luddites? this is not to be borne!

The Editor of Mr. Tupman's Gazette is not spared by this libel—that gentleman is lampooned for holding out that a great award should be offered to any one that should inform of the Luddites.—The reader should here be informed that Mr. Tupman has held out, that as much money should be offered to an informer as would enable him to leave, and live out of the country; but Mr. Clarke endeavoured to cast the odium upon Mr. Sutton; for said he , is not this attempt to shew the necessity of an informer’s leaving the country, an encouragement to Luddites, by disapproving of information against them? Mr. Clarke concluded his address by cautioning the jury against having their judgments led astray by the eloquence of the defendant's Counsel.

The article charged as a libel, was then read. (The reader will find a copy of it in the information, already inserted, but he is to take notice, that that part which is in italics, was not in the original, but is an interpolation, made by the Attorney General.)

Mr. Hobhouse, attorney to the King, was now called to prove the entry of the Review at the General Stamp-Office, which having done he read, by order of the Judge, a royal proclamation, against frame-breaking and other outrages, issued in December, 1811; the London Gazette of Saturday, October 17, 1812, containing a proclamation of reprisals against the United States of America, and the preambles to the Watch and Ward, and Frame-breaking Acts, passed in 1812, the former the 20th of March, and the latter the 13th of October. The reading of these articles was legally and ably opposed by Mr. Denman, leading counsel for the defendant; but his arguments; though powerful were overruled by the Judge. This was not the case with the convictions against Pooly, Green, and Marshall, who had at a former assize been found guilty of frame-breaking, which were attempted to be read as evidence against the defendant; for, in this case, even the Judge thought the prosecuting counsel were doing too much; and they were therefore overruled.

After this dispute was ended, Serjeant Vaughan, on the part of the prosecution, put the following questions to Mr. Hobhouse:—

Q. Sir, have you read the libel?—A. Yes.
Q. What do you understand by General Ludd?—A. I understand General Ludd to mean the supposed person who led the mobs of frame-breakers in the neighbourhood.
Q. What you understand by General Ludd’s son?—A. I understand it to mean a Luddite.
Q. What do you conceive the libel to mean when it speaks of his Majesty's service?—A. The army.
Q. What you understand by frame-breaking?—A. By that I understand the consequences of the riots in this neighbourhood in 1811 and the early part of 1812.
Q. What you understand the libel to mean when it speaks of government?—A. The King’s government.
Q. What you understand the figure 5, three noughts and the letter l.to mean?—A. Five thousand pounds.
Q. I observe the words "all that I and my son have done," how did you understand that?—A. All the acts which the Luddites have committed in the neighbourhood of Nottingham.
Q. What you understand the libel to mean when it speaks of indisputable authority?—A. The Kings government.

Cross-examined by Mr. Denman.

Q. Why do you understand it as meaning the Kings government?—A. Because it says supreme government.
Q. You speak of General Ludd as being a leader, &c.; did you imagine that there was a real person, who, as General Ludd, was a real reader, &c.—A. I never supposed there was such person as General Ludd, but that he was an imaginary person.
Q. Did you understand that his Son was a Commander in the Army?—A. No.

Mr. Reader then called Mr. Woodcock.

Q. Were you a solicitor in Mansfield, in the years 1811 and 1812?—A. I was.
Q. During those years were there any riots and disturbances committed?—A. I believe there were. Question from the Judge—Was you a witness to any of them?—A. I was, at Sutton-in-Ashfield.
Q. Did you see any frames that had been broken?—A. Many.
Question by Counsel—Did they appear to you to have been recently broken?—A. Yes.
Q. Were they broken in places and houses where many persons were assembled?—A. They were broken in a place where I saw many persons running away
Question from the Judge—And some of whom you afterwards took?—A. They were taken afterwards, in houses, where frames were broken.
Question by Counsel—Was it notorious that acts of outrage, &c. had been committed?
This question was quashed.
Q. What did these persons call themselves?—A. Luddites.
Q. Was there any person under whom they pretended to act?—A. I have heard of General Ludd; and I have heard of some that were afterwards committed for frame-breaking—they were called Luddites.
Q. Then, have you never heard the frame-breakers call themselves Luddites?—A. I have heard Ludd songs sung, and seen the name of Ned Ludd written on the walls of Nottingham in chalk.

Cross-examined by Mr. Phillips.

Q. You said you had seen frames broken in Sutton-in-Ashfield.—A. I did not see any outrage committed in Sutton-in-Ashfield—I did not see any riot—saw some persons running away—did not see any great mob.
Q. Did the persons who were taken by you or your party, call themselves Luddites at the time?—A. I do not know that they did.
Question by Mr. Reader—Were there any military?—A. A part of the Mansfield Yeomanry.
Q. Did the person run away upon these military coming up?—Yes, and one of the persons was convicted, who were taken in a house in Sutton-in-Ashfield.

James Stevens examined.

Q. I believe you are a wine-merchant, of Mansfield.—A. Yes.
Q. Do you know of any outrages committed in this county?—A. Yes, in November 1811—saw a great quantity of people, and a great number of broken frames—saw them in two houses—in the inside of one house, and the outside of another—saw a number of persons late in the evening, before the house of a man named Naylor—saw them in different parts of the town afterwards—but in one place, in the front of Maylor’s house, from 50 to 100 people—Naylor’s was one of the houses where the friends were broken.

William Benson examined.

Q. Where do you live?—A. In Nottingham, with my father, a framework-knitter—he had frames in his house on 12th of January, 1812, which were broken at six o'clock at night, by about twenty persons, armed with pistols, and disguised with handkerchiefs tied round about their faces—they forced us into the back place, and told us they would take away our lives if we did not go immediately—they broke one frame and then said, "Ned, do your work well"—they afterwards went up stairs and broken seven more.

Q. What you understand by Ned?—A. They said, Ned, go up stairs and do your work well—did not understand what they meant by "Ned."

Here the case closed on the part of the prosecution, when  Mr. Denman submits his Lordship, that no evidence had been adduced substantially to connect the fictitious name of Ludd, assumed by the writer of the article alleged to be a libel, with the crime of frame-breaking; not had it been proved at all, that the Luddites had broken frames in the neighbourhood of Nottingham, as stated in the Indictment, for the evidence of Benson did not substantiate the fact, since the name of Ludd was not mentioned by those who broke his father's frames; and, as to Sutton-in-Ashfield, it was fifteen miles off, and of course could not be called the neighbourhood of Nottingham; therefore, in his opinion, he was entitled to a verdict, in point of law, as well as of fact, without the case being left to the decision of the jury. But these positions were over-ruled by the Judge, when the learned Counsel addressed the jury in a most able speech, which occupied an hour, to which, we can only say, we will do the most justice in our power; being conscious we shall not support it without dignity with which it fell from the orator’s lips.


Gentlemen, said Mr. Denman, it has now fallen to my lot to address you, as the great inquest of this county, in behalf of my client; and while I feel a consciousness of my own inability to expel from your fancy that fine flow of eloquence which my Learned Friend, as leading Counsel in this case, has just impressed upon you; while I have to combat the powerful phalanx of learning and talent which we see marshalled against us on this occasion, I feel strong in the justice of my cause, coupled with the sterling integrity of a British jury, composed, as is the one I have now the honor of addressing, whose characters in life will be a sufficient guarantee against being guided by any undue influence—against being governed in their decision by prejudice or party bias. On these grounds, gentlemen, I shall expect, with full confidence, a verdict in favor of my client at your hands. My Learned Friend has proved the existence of certain outrages in this county, outrages which I, in common with every honorable man, most ardently deplore, and which no one ever deplored more than my client has done, and none more than himself hath endeavoured to suppress, in the situation of life in which he is placed; therefore we will adopt the strong phrases of my Learned Friend, with reference to these outrages, and their fullest sense. But, it is right, at the same time, to see how they apply to the case in question. I wish my Learned Friend had stated when the outrages, which principally existed in 1811-12 had ceased—if he had done so he would have proved most distinctly the contrary of what he intended to have proved—he would have proved that they could have no reference to the article which is charged in this indictment as a libel, because they had ceased long previous to the time of its publication; and all the twisting, contriving, and inventing, in the drawing up of this record might have been spared—all the attempts to connect guilt with innocence; and to make innocence accountable for guilt, would then have been unavailing, as I hope and trust they will be still. As to the attempt made by my Learned Friend to connect the outrage committed Basford, the night of the publication of this article, with the article itself,—in that he has completely failed; for the intention and plan of that outrage were well known to the magistrates of Nottingham many days before the publication of the article in question, and who had provided for the reception of the depredators; therefore to charge the commission of the outrage upon the publication, the views, or intentions of my client; or that such publications could be any wise incitive to its commission, would itself be an unpardonable outrage upon common sense, and which you, Gentlemen of the Jury cannot listen to for a moment. Had that outrage, which was streaked with the blood of innocence—which was ensanguined by the blood of guilt—which was darkened by the crime of murder—had that happened just before the publication of this article; why then my Learned Friend might have imputed some base design to my client. But here the reverse is the case; and from the subsequent conduct of my client—from the proud attitude of his universal character, for peace, humanity, and justice—from the respectable rank he holds in society—from his great liability to be made one of the first victims to infuriated violence, if, (which God forbid,) violence were to supersede law—from his close attention to the duties of domestic and social life—from these things, I take the liberty of proudly submitting, that the reverse of evil intention on his part is the case; and that the reverse of such intention must be the conclusion of every honest, every honorable mind. Let us see, said Mr. Denman, what was said of this horrid outrage in the Nottingham Review, when the defendant could not be influenced by any motive except what arose out of the nature of the case itself—when the idea of prosecuting him for a libel had scarcely been generated, even by those secret enemies who made justly be supposed to have given an impetus to the present action. His language on that, as on every occasion when it was found necessary to reprobate violations of the law, was strong, nervous, and energetic; but let his paper, in the publication immediately following the outrage at Basford speak for itself—it says, "A most painful task devolves upon us this week, in the having to record and publish to our country, acts of sanguinary violence and assassination, committed in the vicinity of Nottingham, which are disgraceful to the character of Englishmen, and to humanity. We allude to the foul and horrid attempt to murder Mr. Thomas Garton, and the actual murder of Mr. William Kilby, committed last Friday evening at New Basford; the circumstances of which have excited universal indignation and sympathy in this town and neighbourhood, &c. The surviving perpetrators of these atrocious crimes have escaped, but, however at present they may be unknown, we hope and trust they will not long elude detection, and that the just vengeance of the offended laws of God and their country, will finally overtake them." Produce me, said the learned Gentleman, a Newspaper in the whole kingdom which more properly reprobated, and painted in stronger and more feeling language this horrid deed! Indeed, continued he, with much emphasis, if we want language reprobative of violence—condemnatory of a violation of our country’s laws—illustrative of the danger of suffering the human passions to supersede the rules of reason and recommendatory of good order in the intercourse between man and man, we shall find that language pervading the columns of the Nottingham Review. If we want language to extol the merit of our brave countrymen in arms, when their deeds have called for honest praise, and when the patriot’s soul follows their martial progress, we shall find such language in the Nottingham Review; and it really shocks me to see the pains my Learned Friend has taken to connect improper motives to the conduct of my client on this occasion; when he knows so well, from his long career and almost constant practice at the bar, that the most strong and clear circumstances are necessary to prove a tendency in the conduct of the most ordinary individual in the excitement to discord; while in the case before us—to say nothing of his duty, of which we have every manifestation of a strict attention to—the undoubted interest, the universality of bias to propriety, and an unimpeached purity of intention, give a direct negative to such an intention; and, as far as presumptive evidence can go, establish the contrary fact. In the light and satirical manner in which the article in question is written, my client is charged with having committed a political sin—he is charged in the second allegation with having compared the conduct of our army and the sacking of Washington, with that of the Luddites in the pursuit of their lawless system of spoilation. And, Gentlemen of the Jury, let me bring this question home to yourselves as Englishmen—is it not a right, inherent in our constitution, for Englishmen to discuss public questions? Nay is it not a duty incumbent upon the conductors of public journals to shew us the foul as well as the fair side of the national measures? If the right of discussion be denied to men whose writings ought to be directed to the promotion of public liberty, and whose political illustrations have such an effect in directing national opinion—if the right of discussion be denied to these men, in what does the liberty of the press consists? Does this right consisting composing petty paragraphs to conceal guilt, to give a bright colouring to measures of iniquity?—in keeping from public view, by a species of hypocritical cant, the debaucheries and other immoralities too frequent in high life—and in writing panegyrics on princes? Or rather does not this right, this proud distinction of Britons, consist in a bold and manly display of independence in bringing great delinquents to the bar of public opinion; that, if screened by wealth and influence against the just retribution of the law, they may be arrested in their progress by the counteracting hand of public disapprobation? Once destroy the right of free discussion to the editors of newspapers, and a band of unprincipled men, that might have cunning enough to impose upon the good nature of the prince (and princes, we know, are subject to human infirmities like other men,) might push measures on to the utter ruin of our country—the conduct of ministers ought to be canvassed—if they be acting right, they have nothing to fear—if they be acting wrong, public discussion may save the country, by driving them from their seats. Laws have been restored for the good of society, which despotic monarchs had laid aside, and others have been made, which form alike the ground work and the outlines of the constitution; and that constitution is safeguard of discussion, as discussion is the safeguard of the constitution. I THEREFORE, said Mr. Denman, CLAIM THE RIGHT OF FREELY DISCUSSING PUBLIC QUESTIONS AS THE BIRTH-RIGHT, AS THE INHERITANCE OF EVERY ENGLISHMAN—I CLAIM THIS RIGHT FOR MR. SUTTON—I CLAIM IT FOR ALL HIS MAJESTY'S SUBJECTS—AND I CLAIM IT FOR THE WHOLE PEOPLE OF ENGLAND. That men should differ in opinion on political subjects is as natural as it is for us to breathe; but that any man should be bold enough to maintain, that the sort of warfare carried on against America was equally honorable with our achievments in Spain and Portugal, he thought morally impossible. Was it not proper said he, to discuss the merits of the expeditions sent to America, where war was made on palaces of peace, and on printing-offices? and what was more natural than to the editor of an independent newspaper, who was himself an admirer of liberality, to express his indignation against his countrymen making war on printing types; a species of warfare which directed its vengeance against literature and the general progress of information? Was the pillaging at Alexandria honorable warfare? Were our renowned deeds in arms in Europe to be disgraced by a comparison with our conquest over the inhabitants of Washington? The former were calculated to rouse the latent energies of the soul—to call forth the patriot to action—to nerve the arm of the sage—to make the sick man forget his pain, and the spendthrift his vices; while the latter was only calculated to provoke resistance and retaliation, and give activity to the angry passions of the human heart. And I maintain, said Mr. Denman, that, in writing on the subject of the capture of Washington, my client, as an Englishman, had a right to use the expressions which we find in the article alledged to be a libel. For, in using these expressions he was only honestly expressing his indignation, and what he conceived, had brought disgrace on his country; while, by comparing those proceedings with the conduct of the Luddites, he was manifestly shewing his marked disapprobation of such conduct—if you say he has disgraced the soldiers, he has, in a corresponding degree, branded the conduct of Luddites—and if you say he had a design to exalt the conduct of the Luddites, and urge them on to fresh mischief by comparison, he has not disgraced, or did not intend to disgrace the soldiers. And, as intention is necessary to constitute the libel, it is impossible that the two allegations in the indictment can stand—the one destroys the other. As to the charge made by my Learned Friend, of this being a libel against the King, the subject is almost too trifling to merit a reply; for my Learned Friend well knows that the King can do no wrong, that the ministers are the legal advisers of the crown, and that they are responsible for the advice they give; therefore the King is nowise included in this matter. I would just asked my Learned Friend, if the same observations had been made in Parliament, as those here stated to be libellous, whether he thinks the Attorney-General would have visited their author with his vengeance?—Certainly not! But, Gentlemen, there is a point in which this question should be viewed, which has entirely escaped my Learned Friend. How it has happened that the circumstances has escaped my Learned Friend—how it has happened that he has missed this point, so contrary to his usual practice, is not for me to say; for, that his towering genius—his commanding eloquence—his redundancy of thought—his keenness of expression—his insinuation of address are still in the noontide of perfection, and bid defiance to time and the silvery honors on his brow, he has this day given us the fullest proof. Still, however, by some unaccountable circumstance he has omitted to notice this one point, on which too rests the whole jet of the question. Perhaps my Learned Friend thought there was danger in alluding to it; and that will account for the omission; which omission, with its legal interest, must be placed to the credit of Mr. Sutton.—You all know, Gentlemen, that a short time ago there was a newspaper in this town called the "Nottingham Gazette;" and most of you are very well acquainted with the captious manner in which that paper frequently took up local and political questions, and that it sometimes formed an object of ridicule to the Nottingham Review. Now, Gentlemen, read the article which is the subject of this information, and you will clearly see, that it is the mere squabbling between these two papers which gave occasion to this article being written. The Gazette had proposed a sum sufficiently large being offered to any Luddite that would inform of his companions, to enable such informer to leave the country, that his life need not be in danger from his enraged associates—this was commented on in the article in question, and ludicrously perverted into an opinion, that the Editor of the Nottingham Gazette had got into the secrets of the Luddites; and that such Editor recommended this very large reward that he might take advantage of it, to enable him to leave his country and troubles altogether. And yet this silly dispute—these, attacks, replies, and rejoinders of two Editors have at length formed a subject, which has been considered by some persons (and their feelings are not to be envied) sufficiently serious to call for a visitation from the Attorney-General. Will not this action be considered in the light of political animosity, in pouring a vial of wrath upon the head of Mr. Sutton, in consequence of the defeat of his wrangling opponent? If this should, unfortunately, be a conclusion drawn, it will reduce this species of prosecution, in public estimation, very much indeed, and it is a question well worthy the mature deliberation of you Gentlemen of the Jury, before you can think for a moment of giving a verdict against Mr. Sutton.—Gentlemen, I feel almost ashamed at occupying your attention so long, and that too on a subject which, taking the full and candid view of it, which I doubt not you will, seems so easy of determination in favor of my client. But, there is one other thing which I cannot avoid calling your attention to—why has the Attorney-General been induced to take up this question by an information ex-officio, and thus pervert the law from its natural channel, by depriving the defendant of the benefit of Grand Jury? The Grand Inquest of a county [is] always supposed to act from motives the most pure—there are no acts of counsel—no influence from the bench can operate—there every case appears in its native shape, and receives a direction according to its own intrinsic merits—Then why, I ask again, has the defendant been deprived of this shield of innocence—of this grand bulwark of the law? Gentlemen, under an impression that my feeble efforts may have been useful to you, in enabling you to perform a right judgement of the case; and that you will lay your hands on your hearts, and as Englishmen give a verdict consistent with your consciences and the liberty of the subject, I cheerfully and consistently commit the case of my client into your hands; being fully convinced that your verdict will be according to the evidence given in court; and not formed from the extraneous opinions, or information received before your coming here, a position, which I have no doubt his Lordship will inform you is correct.

In reporting Mr. Clarke’s reply, we shall confine ourselves to what appeared as fresh matter; for it would be no gratification to the reader to have his first speech a second time related, with the mere variation of shape.—The substance of his speech is as follows:—Gentlemen of the Jury, it now becomes my duty, as leading Counsel for the crown on this occasion, to address you again on the part of the prosecution, and to give answers to the reasons set forth by the Learned Gentleman, who has just addressed you at such length, so eloquently, and with such ingenuity on the part of the defendant. And I am really at a loss to conceive what observations of mine could have justified him in imputing to me the views he has done respecting the riots, as bearing upon his client; for I only meant to show, that the events were alive about that time, and that the spirit of disturbance existed as strong as it ever did at any other time in this town and neighbourhood. Gentleman, a great deal has been said on political matters; but I cannot suppose that which my Learned Friend supposes on this subject—it is contended by him, that ALL public matters have a right to be brought under the pen of discussion; and that the business of our American expeditions formed one of these matters. The public writers have a right to discuss public matters I readily admit, but not in the way which this libeller has done on the subject in question! For, it is to be endured, that our brave army shall be traduced by comparison with the Luddites, merely because their conduct is punishing a most perfidious enemy did not comport with his political views and desires? The Americans had made war upon as at a moment when they flattered themselves that their aid would kick the beam against us, when the tyrant of the continent was pouring out the vials of his wrath against our very existence as a great nation. But there is no analogy between the two cases—we were at war with America; but can it be said that we were at war the Luddites? It is true, and I am sorry to say too true, that these miscreants made war upon the peaceable inhabitants of this town and neighbourhood, and that the law, as far as it's salutary effects could reach them, made war upon them in return; but it is to be endured, I ask again, that the conduct of our army in America is to be traduced, dishonored, and abused by comparison with the lawless proceedings of these wretches? Besides, we have no evidence in court, that our army committed these violences at Washington which are imputed to their conduct, nor are they to be believed; therefore, supposing for a moment that such charges were true, they cannot be admitted in extenuation, much more in exculpation of the guilt which I charge upon the defendant. But, Gentlemen, let me ask, is there any analogy in the two cases? the Luddites violated every law, human and divine—they took the peaceable inhabitants by surprise, and committed every sort of outrage which you can conceive; while at Washington there were no pillage—no private robberies—no assassinations: all was honorable warfare!!!—My Learned Friend stated to you Gentlemen of the Jury, that you were wholly to confine yourselves to the matter of fact contained in the evidence adduced in court, relative to the formation of your verdict. Here I shall take the liberty of differing with my Learned Friend; and distinctly [obscured] that the Gentleman of the Jury have a right to take into their consideration, their previous knowledge of the circumstances of the case. And, as to the intention of the libeller—that is clear—perfectly clear—the publication proves the tendency, and the tendency proves the intention. And, Gentlemen, I hope, that by your verdict you will put a step stop to such publications. My learned friend cast out some remarks on the Attorney General's interference in this business, and said, that thereby the defendant had been deprived of the benefit of a Grand Jury. In reply to which I will observe, that it is the duty of the Kings Attorney-General to guard the country against the consequences of such publications as the libel in question: and that, if the manner matter had been brought before the Grand Inquest of the county, the defendant would have stood in a far worse situation than he does at present; for he would then have had the opinion of a Grand Jury against him—to have prepossessed the court against his interest; whereas in the present case he has nothing but the honest opinions of you Gentlemen to dread; and I hope and trust, that such will be your verdict, as to convince him and the country at large, of the evil tendency of his conduct.

The Learned Judge now addressed the Jury; and in attempting to give a brief statement of what fell from his Lordship on this occasion, we are free to acknowledge, that our difficulty, in the reporting this trial, most materially increases; for, in the first place, were we to give the address as actually delivered, we should very much doubt that any man, who was not in Court at the time, would give credit to our relation; and, in the second place, the warmth and rapidity with which his Lordship spoke, rendered it impossible to follow him with that correctness, which alone would have enabled us to give his speech with precision.

His Lordship began by recapitulating the nature of the indictment, which he divided into two allegations, namely, the one relating to the riots, and the other as connected with the assault upon Washington. On the former his Lordship contended, in reply to the objections submitted by Mr. Denman of a want of evidence to connect the name of Ludd with frame-breaking as stated in the indictment, "that the libeller himself had supplied the deficiency, by attaching the name of General Ludd to his infamous publication;" and emphatically asked, whether any Englishman could lay his hand on his heart and say, that such publication was not a libel? His Lordship, the course of his address, said, God forbid, that the day should arrive when public writers should not be allowed to discuss the conduct of public men—even, I wish not myself to be spared, if my conduct should be thought worthy of animadversion: but, continued his Lordship, it is not to be borne for disaffected libellers to disseminate their poison by traducing the army by comparison with the conduct of a set of wretches that outrage all order, and resist obedience to the law. And continued his Lordship, what could be the motive of this libeller in writing the article in question? he knew that the embers of discord were laid at rest, for which it should seem he was sorry; and he writes this very libel to call them into action again, and to give fresh fury to their violence. As to the proper exercise of the Attorney-General's power being called in question on this occasion, his Lordship saw no reason for that at all; as that power was the proper bulwark of the constitution to guard it against libellers and other disaffected people; nor did any man call that power in question, except a few wild theorists, who talked about what they did not understand. His Lordship took occasion to justify the doctrine advanced by Mr. Clarke (and we believe this is the first time it was advanced in a court of justice) that a juryman has a right to bring into the box opinions on the question before him already formed, and which may enable him to give a right verdict in the case.

When the Judge had closed, the court was all anxiety, which was shortly relieved; for after a consultation by the Jury which lasted something less than a minute, Samuel Wright, Esq. the foreman, exclaimed aloud, "We pronounce the prisoner GUILTY." This however Mr. Wright was instructed to amend, and delivered with an audible voice, "We pronounce the defendant GUILTY."

NAMES OF THE JURORS.
FROM THE SPECIAL JURY LIST.
SAMUEL WRIGHT, OF GUNTHORPE, ESQ. (Foreman)
THOMAS FISHER OF CODRINGTON, ESQ.
JOHN BRETTLE, OF THURGARTON, ESQ.
JOHN NEED, OF MANSFIELD WOODHOUSE, ESQ.
CHARLES STANTON, OF MANSFIELD, ESQ.
THOMAS BOLGER, OF FISHERTON, ESQ.
HENRY HAWLEY, OF SOUTHWELL, ESQ.
JOHN HANDLEY, OF WOODTHORPE, ESQ.

We understand that six or seven of the above Gentlemen are Members of the Nottingham Pitt Club.

FROM THE PETIT JURY LIST.
RICHARD WARRINER, OF LANEHAM, GENT.
THOMAS STANTON, OF MANSFIELD, GENT.
HENRY HOLE, OF SOUTH MUSKHAM, GENT.
JOHN HARVEY, OF CODDINGTON, GENT.

COUNSEL FOR THE PROSECUTION,
MR. CLARKE, SERJEANT VAUGHAN, MR. READER, MR. REYNOLDS, and MR. JOHN BALGUY.
Solicitors—Messers. ALLSOPP and WELLS.

COUNSEL FOR THE DEFENDANT,
MR. DENMAN and MR. PHILLIPS.
Solicitor—Mr. HURST.

Sutton was not sentenced at these Assizes: he subsequently appealed, and later articles will cover this.

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

21st July 1815: The Duke of Montrose accepts Francis Raynes' resignation

Buchanan, near Dumbarton, 21st July, 1815.

SIR,

I received your letter of the 11th July, and really did not feel myself hurt at your expression, and only thought hat you were going to injure yourself from talking about publishing, which, if you did, might prevent, I feared, those rewards which I expected, and do expect, as the acknowledgement of your good services. What I have communicate to you, was from friendly motives to you, through the whole of the business; and, from an apprehension that not being capable of understanding the difficulty a minister had, in finding an opportunity of serving you, and that you conceived Lord Sidmouth was not sincere in his desire of serving you. With regard to your resignation, I must now accept it, and consider the regiment loses much in withdrawing your zeal and experience from  it; and I beg to return you my thanks for your services, in the name of the Prince Regent, on behalf of His Majesty.

With great esteem, I remain, Sir,
Your obedient Servant,

MONTROSE.

[To] Capt. Raynes.

Saturday, 11 July 2015

11th July 1815: Francis Raynes reiterates his desire to resign to the Duke of Montrose

July 11th, 1815.

MY LORD DUKE,

I had the honor to receive your Grace’s letter of the 6th inst. and have to regret that any expressions in mine of the 3d, should have appeared to your Grace, either hasty, or as intended to wound your Grace’s feelings, than which, nothing could be more distant from my wish or intent. In addressing your Grace on the subject of remuneration for my services, I have ever used the freedom of a suitor to his avowed patron; and when I reflect upon the confidence given me by Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Maitland, in the assurance of your Grace’s patronage, I did hope you would so far feel my situation, under the procrastination of hopes long encouraged, that any unguarded expression, or such as might bear an unfavourable construction, would meet your Grace’s most lenient consideration.

I beg leave to assure your Grace, that my sentiments remain unaltered; and that, however futile my hopes may have been, I shall ever gratefully acknowledge your Grace’s kind endeavours on my behalf.---Convinced that your Grace would wish to prevent discussion in the regiment, and anxious on my part, to avoid being accessory thereto, I have again to request your Grace will do me the favour to accept my resignation; nor can I doubt your Grace’s delicacy of feeling will appreciate mine, in wishing to keep aloof from that derision, which has already arisen thence from unrequited services.        I have the honor to be,

Most respectfully,
Your Grace’s obedient humble Servant,

FRANCIS RAYNES.

[To] His Grace the Duke of Montrose, &c.

Wednesday, 8 July 2015

8th July 1815: The Mayor of Nottingham writes in support of Charles Sutton ahead of his trial for Political Libel

Nottingham July 8th 1815―

My Lord

I take the liberty of addressing your behalf of Mr. Charles Sutton, Publisher of the Nottingham Review, against whom a criminal information has been filed for writing a Letter signed General Ludd, Having been well acquainted with him for upwards of Twenty years I have no hesitation in stating that his conduct in private life has been unimpeachable and that as a member of society few Characters stand higher; and from my Knowledge of him I can declare with confidence, at any improper or unjustifiable observations which have appeared in his Paper, have arisen more from an error in judgment than any wish to inflame the minds of the public—this indeed the extracts from his Papers which I beg leave to inclose, will render it apparent that the outrages committed in this neighbourhood were in reality discountenanced by him.—With regard to the Letter in question; I can positively assert it had no connection with outrage that took place at Basford on the evening of its publication, having as a magistrate had previous information that an attack would be made upon Mr. Garton,—Upon these grounds I am induced to hope Your Lordship will Please to dictate, to Mr. Sutton some terms upon which further Proceedings on the Information may be waived,

For if the prosecution be pushed to the extremity, not only himself but am Amicable and deserving family will be involved in utter ruin, and the existing evil not removed,—You will allow me further to state that it is my decided opinion from the Knowledge I have of the lower Class of Society — in this neighbourhood ― that a severe sentence would only have a tendency to revive that spirit of insubordination which has disgraced this neighbourhood so long—I by no means however wish to dictate to you what ought to be done nevertheless my Lord I have thought it not inconsistent with my situation, and the duty I owe to his Majesty's Government to offer you these remarks which I trust will not be deemed impudent in my Lord. Your Lordships most obedient servant

John Ashwell
Mayor of Nottingham

PS. I wish my Lord to say if this letter should give rise to a desire on your part for further communication on any subject [connected] with this affair you may write me with the utmost confidence

For The Rt Hble Lord Visct. Sidmouth
Secretary of State &c &c &c

8th July 1815: George Coldham is concerned he will be assassinated by John Dann

Nottingham 8 July 1815—

Dear Sir,

I feel myself very much Indebted to you for I consider it is most probably at your Instance that the addition of Cavalry lately marched into the Town has arrived here. I have not sent you the two last Reports but they are upon the whole upon the main subject of our Anxiety of a more encouraging nature. They state substantially that the hopes of these Scoundrels, who meditate a Revolution were dependant upon the Success of Bonaparte & that the conviction they now possess of his complete & entire Defeat has lead them to consider all chance of affecting a Revolution here as hopeless. If however the general Danger is subsiding the Individual Peril is not passed away, but for the moment perhaps is greater than ever — Dann meditates unquestionably the Murder of myself & speaks with considerable coolness of arming himself with a four barrelled Pistol in order not to [miss] his aim & of disguising himself so as to prevent his being known. But as he speaks of effecting his purpose as I entered or returned in an Evening to my own House I shall certainly just for the present be upon my Guard & I have besides taken other measures of precaution. I know very well however that this State of Enmity is not likely to last long & I hope it will after a short Interval subside. Be that as it may you may Depend as long as Danger exists here, in Defiance of any personal Hazard the Magistrates as well as myself shall Do our Duty to his Majesty's Government but I wish that Government at the same time at least on my part to consider that upon all manner & material points my political Sentiments remain unchanged & that I shall ever act up to them according to the Extent of what I conceive to be right. I congratulate you most sincerely upon the possession of Paris which is decisive of a Termination of the War favourable to the best wishes & Interests of the Country. I am much obliged to you for the Gazette you are so good as to send me.

Your’s very truly in haste
Geo Coldham

[To: J. Beckett Esqr.]

Monday, 6 July 2015

6th July 1815: The Duke of Montrose sends a stinging reply to Francis Raynes' threat

London, 6th July, 1815.

SIR,

I have just received your letter, and think you have written hastily, and, therefore, till you confirm it, will not understand that you threaten an appeal to the public. Under this impression, I shall not even accept your resignation till I hear again from you and beg leave to state that my communications which I have made to you, of the applications I have made to obtain for you, reward for your services, I considered as done confidentially; and that you have not any consent of mine, to make any communication that has passed through me to you public.

This letter is written entirely on your account, as an appeal to the public would only destroy the obligation ministers may feel to reward your services, and, in my opinion, be very injurious to you in all respects.

I remain, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

MONTROSE.

[To] Capt. Raynes.

Friday, 3 July 2015

3rd July 1815: Francis Raynes offers his resignation with a threat to publicise his case

3d July, 1815.

MY LORD DUKE,

Absence from home prevented my receiving your Grace’s favour of the 24th ult. Till this moment.

Were it possible I could misapprehend your Grace’s expression in respect to the barrack appointment, your letter would excite no surprise; but when I reflect that your Grace stated to me, that my Lord Liverpool had assented me to such appointment in my favour, preferable to some the reduced officers, I am precluded drawing any equivocal inference. I most perfectly accord with your Grace’s opinion, “in what is to be done, and what is eventually accomplished,” as the experience of the last two years and a half has fully taught me. Yet I would be loathe to think so uncharitably of the Earl of Liverpool or Lord Sidmouth, as to suppose they would trifle with the feeling of an individual under such circumstances; and I am to believe they would not presume to make your Grace an instrument in the furtherance of hopes which were not intended to be realised.

Your Grace will have perceived throughout, that emolument alone was not my object; but that an honourable appointment should await my services. If His Majesty’s ministers will admit my being allowed the temporary rank of Captain, and the requirement of such, it might readily relieve them from the difficulty which has so often been suggested.

Should this proposition be rejected, without a suitable remuneration, I must request your Grace will be pleased to accept my resignation; for I should not feel happy to do duty in the Stirlingshire, under existing circumstances.

It is fortunate that I have preserved every document relative to that service; and I cannot entertain a doubt that the General Officers under whom I had the honor to serve, will bear amply testimony thereof; and however reluctant I may be to make my case known to the public, yet, on retiring from the service, I feel it a duty I owe myself and my family.

I have the honor to be,
Most respectfully,
Your Grace’s obedient and humble Servant,

FRANCIS RAYNES

[To] His Grace the Duke of Montrose, &c.

Wednesday, 1 July 2015

1st July 1815: George Coldham expresses concerns about the security of arms depots

Nottingham 1st July 1815.

Private.

Dear Sir,

I was yesterday at Newark & I was upon the Spot & had half an Hour to spare I set about examining the State of the Arms here. I found that in consequence of a Letter from you the Arms of the Regimt of local Militia remaining in Newark had been shipped stripped of their Locks & Bayonets which had been removed without great precaution & Secrecy to a very different place from the other parts of the Muskets. But I actually saw with my Eyes & therefore can not be mistaken that the Arms of the Regimt of the regular Nottinghamshire Militia deposited there were placed in the rooms above the Council room at the Town Hall had their Bayonets & Locks with the muskets & were in no State of Security from Attack having no Guard upon them. I therefore really think that you had best give Directions to this effect by a Letter to the Commanding Officer of the Regiment at Newark where I believe there is an Adjutant & Staff belonging to the Regiment. I am sorry to be troublesome but I am sure you will be glad to learn this & act upon it and it is certainly just possible the precautions may prevent much mischief

I am Dear Sir
Your’s very truly
Geo. Coldham

[To] J. Beckett Esqr

1st July 1815: The Mayor of Leicester expresses concern about recent developments in the Town

Leicester,
July 1. 1815.

My Lord,

Mr. Burbridge, our Town Clerk, having received a letter on Thursday evening last from a confidential friend at Nottingham, who wishes name to be kept secret; but upon whose discretion and Judgement your Lordship may entirely rely, I beg to inclose a copy of that Letter, marked "A." On the day to which the writer alludes (26th June) a Meeting was held at Leicester, and an open pasture ground, upon the subject of Parliamentary Reform. It was called by an Anonymous Advertisement, & attended by about two or three hundreds only of the rabble of the Town. There were some Strangers amongst them who took the lead.

Yesterday evening I received a letter from an anonymous correspondent of which I inclose a copy marked "B." I am sorry to add that some other little facts which had previously come to my knowledge lead me to believe that, to a certain extent at least, the information thus communicated is true. In any event it is clear that secret Societies are forming in Leicester & that the members of them are sworn. With the view to detect these practices my Brother Magistrates and myself have taken such precautions as appeared to us to be necessary. Amongst other things we have thought it expedient to request that two confidential and discreet officers from Bow Street may be sent to as to reside at Leicester, in disguise, for some months, if necessary, & to associate with some of the members of these Societies, &, if possible, to get admitted themselves. No other plan appears to us to promise so speedy a development of the objects in view; nor could any persons known in this Town or neighbourhood be so likely to accomplish it.—With respect to the Militia arms we would mention that we have requested Adjutant of the Militia to place a Guard night and day over those which are deposited in the building called the Magazine which we consider to be tolerably secure;—but the Local militia arms are in another building in a different part of the Town, & we do not consider them safe. For this reason we have requested the Officer of the Local Militia to order the Locks & Bayonets of his pieces to be taken off & deposited in the Magazine, & they will thus be rendered harmless if an attack should be made. The party of regular Militia resident at Leicester does not, we believe, exceed 20 or 30 men, & we have no other military here but recruiting parties.—

Your Lordship is aware that it is only the arms of the Leicester Regiment of Local Militia which are deposited at Leicester, the others being kept, I can not say whether securely or not, in other Towns in the County. Your Lordship will consider whether it might not be well worth the expenditure to have some capacious & secure building erected which should hold all the Militia arms of the County, & be at all times under a sufficient military Guard. I feel persuaded that your Lordship will pardon the liberty of this suggestion, & I need scarcely add that in any point upon which your Lordship will favor us with directions we shall be very happy to obey them.

I have [etc]

M Miles Mayor

[To] The Right Honble
Lord Visct. Sidmouth
&c &c &c

Tuesday, 30 June 2015

30th June 1815: The convict Thomas Holden writes to his wife, from Sydney, Australia

Sydney June [11] 30 1815

My Dear Wife

I take this oppertunity of Writing to you Hoping to find to find you and My Dear Child in good health as this Leaves Me at Presant thanks Be to god for the Same and I ham very unhappy to think that you have for got me So soon for My Part I know that I ham Shut up in one Corner of the World But I hope that you wont for get to write to me hevery 3 Months as there is a Ship Sails from Portsmouth and there is nothing will Give Me More happiness than to hear from you for My Part there is never a Ship Coms to this Contry But I goes to know whether there is aney Letter for Me or no and when there is no Letter then I think you Have quite forgot Me to think that I have got ondley one Letter Since this time 3 yers So I Desire you Will Let Me know the Reason that My Brother Dont Write to Me and My Cousan James and I hope they Will find time to write if they Can and My Dear father and Mother I hear that there is Peace with all the World so I Desire you will Send the Word if it is So and
Please to Let Me know how the trade is Since Peac[ ] and Whether I can get a honist Living or not and there is a Strong Report of us getting our pardon and if there is Please to Let Me Know By the first Ship and you Mentinsond Some of the Men that Came from England with Me But I will ashure
you I have never Cept Company with any one Sins I Left my natife Contry for I will ashure you I find
it as Much as I Can do to Mind My Self and I have Done all that Eavr Man Can Do to get my Liberty
and to Come home But it is all in vain the More I strive the More I ham Behind So Dear Mother if
Should Please God to Let us Meet a gain in this World I hope it will Be a happy Meetting and if it Should Please god to Call Me Before our Meeting I hope we Shal Meet in another World Where there
Will Be no More Parting once I Did not think that it would Be my feat to Be So far Distant from you My Dear Mother and you My Wife and Child Dear Mother things in this Contry is very Dear Mens hats is too Pound too Shillings and Stockings ten Shillings Per Pair and Shoos Sixteen Shillings Per Pair Sugar 3 Shillings Per Pound and Butter 7 Shillings Per Pound Cotton Prints 12 Shillings Per yard velveteen one Pound Per yard 40 Reed Muslin 12 Shillings Per yard and Eavry thing acordingly and allthough the Prices is So high We are Verry glad to get at aney Price so I must inform you of my  Wages

I have 20 Pounds Per year in Corrency Money it will Be More than 12 Pounds in English Coin So My Dear Brother I hope you will Stay at home with your Mother and Becontented in the State you are in and I Desire you to write to Me and Send Me all the news that is going with you Both in family afairs and how trade is and the Prise of Vitling and all oather news that you Can as ther is nothing will give Me More Satisfaction then to hear from you all & when it is Dark with you it is Light with us and the natifs of this Contry they are Blaiks and they go naked Just as they Came into the world and they live on Nuts of trees as [   ] [   ] Snouts or aney oather Creeping thing [   ]n and Children goes all naked a Like So I have nothing More to add ondley Begging of you My Dear Wife that you will take Perticul[  ] Care of My Dear Child until I Return for I will ashure you I think of nothing But you and My Dear Child and My Sincere Prayr is Both Day and night that I May once More Be along with you Both and never More to Be Parted – – –

So no More at Presant from your Loving husba[ ] – [til Death] and affectinate father and Dutifull Son
        til Death Thos Holding

[To] Mrs Holding
to be left at the sign of the Golden L[   ]
Church Gate Bolton
Lee Moores
        Lancashire

30th June 1815: The Mayor of Leicester receives an anonymous letter from 'A Loyalist'

[Received 30th June 1815]

Copy

Sir,

It is not impossible that you may know what I am about to communicate; or if not you may deem the information unimportant in either case I am persuaded you cannot be offended by the liberty I take of addressing you, while I shall satisfy my conscience by laying before you a few facts which have recently come to my knowledge—

I lately fell a company with a person of whose principles I had some previous knowledge, though I have every reason to believe he was wholly ignorant of mine — I would here, Sir, remark that in order to be more completely acquainted with him I disguised my own politics sentiments & assumed the appearance of "a true brother" viz. one disaffected to Government. By this means with little difficulty I became the confidant of my companion & received from him what it is my present business to state to you — Our first conversation was respecting the meeting lately held in the [Pasture] the ostensible object of which was "Reform in Parliament" — This I was assured was only a covering of the real design — that similar meetings had been would be convened in many places — that the business was conducted by Strangers & that the real design of them was (to use the same ends) "to see who was who"―That which the apparent business of the meeting was going on — a party of the best of them (i.e. the foremost) were employed in close conversation alone — I was then plainly told that the end in view was to ascertain the sentiments of the people, to appoint persons to carry on the business amongst themselves as well as to keep up a communication with several others places (amongst which Manchester, Liverpool, &c &c were mentioned) — a signal or watchword was appointed — correspondence, on the subject is forbid as likely to lead to detection — when these arrangements are fully made an effort is to be made to subvert the Constitution — an early day was expected to be named — it being desirable to carry their plans into execution while the army is absent (the day [illegible] ― derived it was considered not unfavourable that it was received so early lest the embarkation of the Troops about to proceed to Holland should be stopped)—

A simultaneous movement is to take place. the centre of which is London — They have no apprehension from the Local Militia they being for the most part considered friendly to the cause — It will be unnecessary to enter into the detail of what is to follow if success crown the first effort — I will only firstly state that it is in their plan immediately to proceed to the House of Commons — dissolve it & chuse one of their own making — to dethrone the present family & place — there Sir Francis Burdett, who by the bye is already known among them by the name of Oliver Cromwell—

These things will perhaps rather excite a smile than any consternation — I confess I am not concerned as to the result if any attempt should be made — My only reason for troubling you is, that if you are not already — you may be apprized of what I sincerely believe is in agitation — As no evil can result from your knowledge of them & may be a prevention of disturbance I have put down the above as I heard it unconnectedly & incoherently & incorrectly it is written I doubt not, but you will excuse this & if you think it of any importance you will of course be upon the watch tower. I can assure you the person before mentioned was not sparing of invective against yourself & brother Magistrates for employing Constables upon a late occasion — Every thing indicates at a set of the most despicable unprincipled wretches are endeavouring to promote disaffection ‘till it terminates in a revolution & as this appears the moment for them to make their appeal to the public when trade is bad, manufacturers are out of employ, the army abroad &c it certainly will be but the part of prudence to endeavour to suppress in the germ what perhaps it will be more difficult to destroy when grown into a more complete system

Your’s
A Loyalist.

Sunday, 28 June 2015

28th June 1815: The Town Clerk of Leicester receives an informer's letter from Nottingham

Nottingham
28th June 1815.

Dear Sir,

You well know by what a set of Scoundrels we are surrounded in this place — I mean the Ludites — their present plan is to overturn the Government by a revolution. There is an organized society for this purpose — and I am sorry to say that in the number of manufacturing Towns the same intention prevails — Leicester is in the number — I therefore think it prudent — well knowing your loyal & good intentions to give you such information as has come to my knowledge in order that you may put the Magistrates on their guard & thereby frustrate the intentions of these miscreants. The Nottingham Arms in Belgrave Gate is their principal place of rendezvous — Johnson, a retail Hosier, son of the Landlady is a first rate mover in this business but is a wary, cautious fellow — Brown, a Painter in the same Street, is also a principal – There are several societies in Leicester & the members are all sworn — It was the intention of them to send a Deputy to London. For this purpose & to make other arrangements a meeting was to be held at Mrs Johnson’s on the 26th inst.

I do not presume to offer any advice on this occasion — no doubt the thing will appear ridiculous to many that a few insignificant individuals should think of adopting so mighty a plan as that of bringing about a revolution — However I leave the matter to your consideration — & I must particularly request that you will on no account communicate my name – You have no idea that a murderous set of Villains are to be found in this neighbourhood I again request you will tear my name from the paper—

I am,
Your’s very sincerely

I feel myself under the necessity of cautioning you still further — namely, not on any account to let it be known from whence you receive this information — I mean is coming from this place, lest the party from whom I derive my information may be suspected — Probably you will not think, it adviseable to consult with more than two or three of your Magistrates — If Mr. H. Wood should be one of them I have no objection to give him my confidence —

One part of the plan is to seize the Militia arms now in depot at Leicester—

[To] Burbidge Esqr.
Town Clerk,
Leicester

Saturday, 27 June 2015

27th June 1815: George Coldham's informer sends his second report of the day about Nottinghamshire Luddites

27th June 1815.

I was at Seymour’s last night with Burton, Badder, John Slater Hill, John Mann & Holmes.—The journey to London was considered. They wanted me to go to London by myself.—Hill told me privately that Holmes had been heard to say it would be a casualty going there and they therefore did not think he was hearty in the cause and have not full confidence in him.—I objected going alone & alledged as a reason that one person only would not be so much noticed as 2 or more and that the person from Leicester might not be ready to go.—They have collected they said betn 30 & 40 [shillings] & put the same into John Mann's hands.—The Needlemn in Woolpack Lane I think his name is Stevens was to have furnished instructions to whom to go to in London & he came there but did not come into the Room amongst us on acct of there being some words about Homes whom they suspect – Burton and Hill have been to Sampson Walker as proposed & told him about the London Journey & that I was to go — He told them there was a Snake amongst them for the [Corporation] had got a List of 20 of their names & that some of these Names were at London before now — Hill urged my going — I told them Nottingham would be only a handful & that they would not act if they had not many more Towns to join them.—The London Journey is given up and I am going into Yorkshire, to Wakefield, Sheffield, Halifax and some other places were mentioned & I am to meet them again tomorrow night to have final instructions & be furnished with money .. Bigs the Tinman in Greyhound Yard is the man that went there before but they have a very bad conceit of him & say he would tell if taken on Suspicion.—They say he is frightened & tells them he dreams and talks in his sleep about what is going on — They are to go to him to day to get some information from him.—Hill & Slater said there was a Petition going on in the Town.—They wanted me to go to Sampson Walker to find out whose names the Corporation have got,—They talked about where the Arms are deposited but none of them could tell where they are — Slater said the way to find that out would be to seize some of the head Devils, they named [Aldermen] Swann & Mr Coldham the Town Clerk & put them in fear by threatening their lives if they would not tell whether arms are — As to Coldham they said they should not save him if he did tell for he was a Governmnt Spye & had £400 a yr — A great deal more like language was used, they said this [Corporation] was worse than Government — Slater told me privately he had been agaitwards with Dann to arnold & Dann had told him he had been taking a view yesterday of Mr Coldham’s house & that he means to lay wait for him — Dann is not to go to Leicester — He remains working at Gilberts Sandy Lane — They are to attempt to seize the arms of the militia stationed in Nottm.

27th June 1815: George Coldham's informer writes of a meeting with Gravenor Henson & talk of revolution in Nottingham

27th June 1815.

I was with Sampson Walker yesterday morning about the [Corporation] having a list of the Ludd's names. He began to chastise me as soon as he saw me & advised me to have nothing to do with it. I told him I had nothing to do to do with it, & the Connection I had with these men was only just formed & they could not have my name. He said Lomax the Grocer told him the Corporation had had the names a month since & that there was no doubt they had gone up to Government & they might suspend the Habeas Corpus Act & put anyone into Prison without shewing why.―He told me by all means to drop the Connection as Revolution was not to be brought about by the means they proposed & he had told Burton to call again, but he should have nothing to do with it.—When I left Walker about 9 oClock I went to Stevens the Needlemaker in King Street, Woolpack Lane.―He began to talk to me about a Revolution & Gravenor Henson came in — Gravenor began to talk about getting money & he asked me if old Newton of Bullwell had not got a good bit of Gold.—I told him I understood he had but I did not know where it was.—He said ‘Oh damn that, we’ll soon find it when we get there, I asked him how we were to find it. He said ‘Oh damn that we would soon make him tell, by putting him in bodily fear by getting some hot water & pouring on his legs, hanging him up, or giving him a good hiding or some such way.—We talked about the Revolution. He said he could raise 25,000 men in 2 hours.—As for such fellows as Dr. Wylde & all those black gowned [Gentleman] he would send them to New South Wales where many a brave fellow had been sent — He said there were three men in Nottm. shd. die & nothing should save them.―I asked him who they were — He said one was Coldham the Town Clerk,—Stevens of Mansfield & Beecher of Southwell. These he said should have no mercy.—We had a deal of talk about a Revolution―Burton came & heard part of this Conversation.—He talked of the same method as before proposed by Slater of finding where the arms are by getting hold of some of the heads of the Town & making them tell where they are. — Remained with till about noon — Was with Burton, John Mann, Badder, Holmes, and John Slater to night at the Leather Bottle.—They called me out into the Street & told me they thought it would be better to lay aside the Yorkshire Journey a few days — The reasons they assigned were — their suspicion of John Greaves who was Secretary to the Committee of the late Petitioning.—They said he has a Cousin at Coldham's Office & he has been in the habit of going there sometimes. They did not say that he had told of anything that he had discovered anything on there but that Mr. Coldham had once said to him he had too much of Sir Francis Burdett in him, & they said that Mr. Coldham would not have said so to him unless he had been saying something to Mr. Coldham — Holmes swore if he found out, that any man was hunting his blood he would hunt his.—They agreed that John Greaves is to be told it had all dropped on account of this news & then they should get rid of him.―They agreed we were to meet next Sunday or Monday and if I had anything to communicate I might come to John Mann at the Leather Bottle & he would let them know, & I told them they might find me at Hollingworth's.

Dann is 5 f. 6 or 7 inches high.. has redish hair and wiskers largish palish complexion.―thin face rather long – a tooth out in front, think on the top jaw – is franfreckled – generally wears blue Framework Pantaloons, walks upright & quick off the Ground - has a fullish eye, color, blue.―Teeth rather yellow – longish nose aquiline or roman, mostly wears a Jacket, a kind of Fustian without laps, – looks cleanish mostly. —

When Gravenor Henson was talking about the means to be used to effect a Revolution he said the first thing to be done was to set fire to Lombard Street where all the Banks were & then when the Mail brought that intelligence it, must be the signal to begin every where else. The next thing London must be shoved out & we could go to thro the Country in 9 days.―He mentioned many Towns where there were arms & the People were ripe & what Towns would be of Service — He mentioned so many I cant remember them.—He spoke of many in Yorkshire & Lancashire & a Barracks where there were only 500 Soldiers and many arms. This place must be attacked & the Arms seized & it would strike a dread upon the Country.—He said a great deal that I cannot repeat about the means to be adopted & the measures to be pursued by the Revolutionists.

Friday, 26 June 2015

26th June 1815: George Coldham reports on plans to send his informer to London

Nottingham June 1815

Private

Dear Sir,

I inclose you a Copy of our last Report by which you will perceive the Statement made by our Informant of the Situation of Leicester. I did not I confess think these Men quite so dangerous as I was Disposed to imagine that but I still conceive their power of doing harm rendered expedient to know as much of them as we can. The Secret Committee have therefore Determined to let our Informant go to London if the Luddites can raise him a Companion & so much Money as to clear him of the Suspicion of being too forward If they can furnish the two Men £6 he will pretend to have got Subscriptions as far as £2 & will go [illegible] care to raise in the meantime some small Subscriptions where it will be reported to them. I have conferred with the Magistrates & if he goes they have Determined to send me Clerk Francis Wright with whom our Informant communicates here with an Introduction to you so that if it really appears that there is any channel of communication in London which it can be important for Government to know you & Lord Sidmouth will be put in possession of it. The Expenses attending this measure I have taken upon myself to be responsible for the Secret do not think it belongs to them & the Magistrates are aware that it may form a questionable Article in the County Rate Accounts & I hope you will think it is an Expense which Government will under the circumstances consider them bound to provide for. Nothing good or important may arise out of it or it may lead to useful Information but if the opportunity occurs I shall not think I Do my Duty without making the experiment. As by probability our Informant’s going may be Delayed somewhat longer I have shall be glad to hear from you on this subject by return of Post if you differ from me in Opinion. We hope we are in a [fair] [Train] of finding as the Person who wrote the private Letter to me respecting the Arms & that more Information may result from it. I think nothing at all of their means of any serious permanent mischief but I believe a few of them are mad & desperate enough for anything. At present they are very slow to believe in the Defeat of Bonaparte. I cannot close this Letter without congratulating Lord Sidmouth & yourself most sincerely & heartily upon the late glorious Victory which has placed Lord Wellington & this Country upon the very Pinnacle of Military Glory I devoutly hope that it may be immediately lead to consequences important & decisive of the best Interests of Britain & of Europe.

I am Dear Sir,
Your’s very truly
Geo. Coldham

[To] J. Beckett Esqr.

PS. Our Informant [returns] to communicate with us to morrow Afternoon where you shall hear if he can be safely permitted to go to London

Thursday, 25 June 2015

21st June 1815: George Coldham abandons plans to raid Gravenor Henson's home

25th June 1815.—

I went to Leicester last Wednesday morning.—Had instructions to go to the "Nottingham Arms" Belgrave Gate, where I was told there was a Society of Revolutionists and that the son of the Landlady, Elizth Johnson, was one of them.—Dann told me Johnson was a good one.—He is a retail Hosier and works in the Frame himself.—Went to Johnson's as soon as I got to Leicester and saw him.—Told him what I was come about.—Dann is to go and work with him and I told him that something had happened that had prevented him from being with him until next week.—

I asked him if there had not been some stranger from Nottm & told him to be cautious who he said anything to.—He said he did not know of anybody having been there.—Johnson is very close minded.—He said a few Stocking makers could not bring such a thing as that forward and a parcel of us would get hanged if we did not mind. He speaks little and when in company frequently cautions others when they say anything that may be used to their disadvantage.—Went into the Hay market and there saw, a little black looking Chap.—Dont know his name we got into Conversation.—He asked if I came from Nottingham and if I knew Cooke.—I told him I did and had worked with him & Sherwood also―he told me they were Brothers in Law.—When he found I knew & was acquainted with them, he talked freely with me, & we went to Johnson’s together & on the way there he told me there was to be a Meeting in some Field, the name of which I don't remember.—He advised me not to go―When he had been at Johnson’s some time, about 9 o'Clock he said he should be wanted & he then left me.—I told him I thought the Leicester Chaps were not so forward as the Nottm.—He said they were & that they swore in every man that they engaged.—He did not tell me any of their names nor their number — He said Leicester would be as ready as Nottingham to seize the arms there, but it must be done in the night – He did not say they had adopted any plan to do it. Johnson did not hear of any of this Conversation.—Several men came here that night & I afterwards discovered they were part of the set.—Afterwards had some talk with a man of the name of Brown — who was one of those at Johnson's that night.—He is a Painter & lives he says in Belgrave Gate.—He began to talk about Sherwood, and told me Sherwood had been there lately.—I told him I knew he had, and that it appeared from what he had said that the Leicester Chaps hung back sadly.—Brown said that was not the Case and Sherwood never dived into it.—He said he thought they were more ready than Nottm — he understood they had Meetings twice a week at Nottm.—He told me there were several Societies in Leicester, and one was there (at Johnson's) and he was in it.—He did not tell me how many there were who had joined them.—He told me there was to be a Meeting there next Monday night.—Did not say what for.—The foregoing was Secret discourse — Had no other Secret talks with any, but have been with Brown & the man first mentioned at Johnson’s in company with several others when the chief of their discourse had been about the Revolution.—

Yesterday I went to Sherwood and Cooke.—As soon as Sherwood saw me, he told me he wanted to see me & that he was just going to seek for me — we went out together & he told me they had found out there was another Union in Nottm and from what he said I found it was Badder, Slater and their accomplices.—He proposed we two should join & act togr. upon one plan.—I told him I had been at Leicester & I thought they were more ready there than here.—He said he believed they were but when he was there he had not time to get amongst them as much as he wished.—He took me to a great Shop (Wells’s in Barker Gate) where there were some of his Friends, & there I saw Badder, & two other men not known to me my name.—Sherwood told them I was the Young man he had spoke to them about & that I had been at Leicester — we have some talk there and others came in.—They asked if somebody was not going to London from Leicester.—I told them I understood there was and then we agreed to meet at the Leather Bottle — We went there soon after but there was a deal of mixed company, & we cd. not say what we wished.—Haines came in & stuck up a written Paper in the Parlour "If France is subdued Europe's Liberty ends". We agreed to go to Seymour’s & went there separately – We had a Room to ourselves a Chamber — Thos. Burton dont know where he lives – Sherwood, Badder, Holmes dont know where he lives, John Mann and a Needlemaker who lives in Woolpack Lane, in a yard at the Cottom, either King Street or Wool Alley, & another Chap called Henry, were all there.—They began to say now we are met we must consult about the means to send two to London along with one from Leicester, as this was the very moment to strike the blow, when the Soldiers were all out of the Country, as they should never have a better opportunity.—They then asked me if I should like to be one.—I told them I should have no objn. but I was going into Yorkshire.—They said there should be no time lost in going to London & I had better go there & somebody else to Yorkshire.—They wanted to know how much money I could get amongst my friends towards the expence of the Journey.—They talked of raising 8 Guineas, I told them I thought I could raise £2.—They are to meet a Chap today at Badder’s Garden, who is to tell them on many staunch Jacobins to join them. They propose Holmes & myself to go to London next Tuesday to tell that then than Nottm & Leicester were quite ready to seize arms and begin & that if the blow be first struck in London, it will stop the whole trade at once & create a General forment.—That the night is to be agreed upon when the blow is to be struck & it is to be at all the places at the same time.—The blow to be struck is to seize the arms of the Military & the Militia Arms & they think the military will join them.—Nothing was said what was to be the next measure.—They were in high Spirits & sanguine in their expectations of success.—They are to have a Petition prepared as a Cloak to cover a Subscription — & they talked of going to the Committee at the Colonel Wardle and to confer with Sampson Walker and to make known to him their intentions — I told them I thought he might be trusted — Burton is to go to Walker this morning — We are to meet again tomorrow night at 8 at Seymour’s.—